A federal court in Tucson has upheld the constitutionality of Arizona's law that prohibits schools from offering courses that teach ethnic solidarity.
The Tucson Unified School District previously eliminated Mexican-American Studies courses after state officials ruled that the courses' content violated a law against curriculum that engendered racial or ethnic disharmony.
An independent administrative law judge found the program presented material in a "biased, political, and emotionally charged manner" and teaching in such a manner "promotes racial resentment."
Several students and teachers in Tucson's largest school district challenged the statute on several grounds, including violation of free speech.
The case was argued by Arizona Attorney General Tom Horne.
He says the court decision ensures that "public education is not held captive to radical, political elements."